You'll be surprised how easy it is to
understand and calculate your returns!
There are many ways to calculate your returns, though the two most popular methods are Absolute returns and Annualised returns.
Absolute return is the simple increase (or decrease) in your investment in terms of percentage. It does not take into account the time taken for this change. So if an investment’s current market value is Rs. 5,25,000 and your invested amount was Rs. 2,75,000 then your absolute return will be:
Notice how irrelevant the date of investment or date of redemption is. Ideally, you should use the absolute returns method if the tenure of your investment is less than 1 year.
For periods of more than 1 year, you need to annualise returns; which means you need to find out what the rate of return is per annum.
A compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is what measures the rate of return over an investment period. It is a smoothened rate because it measures the growth of an investment as if it had grown at a steady rate, on an annually compounded basis.
CAGR = [(Current Value / Beginning Value) ^ (1/# of Years)]-1
To calculate a CAGR, use the XIRR function in MS Excel.
|8-Jan-06||1,00,000||Enter the date and the investment value|
|31-Dec-12||2,00,000||Enter the current value and the current date|
Please remember to put a negative sign as the XIRR formula calculates the return on cash flows. Thus to find returns there has to be a cash inflow and cash outflow, which should be indicated with the use of positive and negative signs.
Actively managed funds are those where the fund manager actively manages these funds and buys or sells stocks of companies as per the broad guidelines that have been enumerated in the scheme information document sells stocks. These funds don’t mimic the index but buy and sell on basis of the research of the fund manager.
Passive funds on the other hand look at offering returns by mimicking an index like a BSE or Nifty. The whole point of Index fund is to follow a certain benchmark, and therefore they are called passively managed funds.
This brings us to the question, how exactly can you measure a fund manager’s contribution to performance? Alpha measures the performance due to stock selection. It is the difference between the return you would expect from a fund, given its beta and the return it actually produced. If the fund returns more than its beta would predict, it has a positive alpha and if it returns less than the amount predicted by the beta, that would mean that the fund has a negative alpha.
A positive alpha is the extra return would be awarded to you for taking a risk, instead of accepting the market return.
Beta measures the volatility of a security relative to something, usually a benchmark index. A beta greater than one means the fund or stock is more volatile than the benchmark index, while a beta of less than one means the security is less volatile than the index.
If the market goes up by 10%, a fund with a beta of 1.0 should go up 10% and vice versa. While standard deviation determines the volatility of a fund according to the disparity of its returns over a period of time, beta, determines the volatility, or risk, of a fund in comparison to that of its index or benchmark.
Beta is based on the capital assets pricing model which states that there are two kinds of risk in investing in equities- systematic risk and non-systematic risk. Systematic risk is integral to investing in the market and cannot be avoided. Eg. risk arising out of inflation and interest rates. Non-systematic risk is unique to a company - can be mimimised by diversification across companies. Since non-systematic risk can be diversified, investors need to be compensated for systematic risk which is measured by Beta.
Usually denoted with the letter σ, Standard Deviation is defined as the square root of the variance.
It basically serves as a measure of uncertainty. Volatile securities that have a higher standard deviation are also considered a higher risk because their performance may change quickly, in either direction and at any moment.
So the standard deviation of a fund measures this risk by measuring the degree to which the fund fluctuates in relation to its mean return i.e. the average return of a fund over a period.
For example, a fund that has a consistent four year return of 3%, would have a mean, or average of 3%. The standard deviation for this fund would then be zero because the fund's return in any given year does not differ from its four year mean of 3%.
The standard deviation of a set of data measures how "spread out" the data set is. In other words, it tells you whether all the data items bunch around close to the mean or if they are "all over the place."
Imagine you have a choice between two stocks: Stock A historically returns 5% with a standard deviation of 10%, while Stock B returns 6% and carries a standard deviation of 20%, which one do you think is more risky?
Stock A has the potential to earn 10% more than the expected return, but is equally likely to earn 10% less than the expected return. Likewise Stock B can vary by up to 20%
So on a risk and return perspective, Stock A is less risky than Stock B.